Although there is substantial documentation of prevalence, severity and health consequences of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in preschool-aged children, very few studies have been done to find out the extent of VAD in primary school children. Present study was carried out in school children (5-15 years age) from slum areas of Ahmedabad city to see the prevalence of xerophthalmia. The present study was designed as a cross sectional study conducted in primary schools of urban slums in Ahmedabad from October 2007 to July 2008. 1000 children were randomly selected from 10 schools and examined with predesigned and pretested Performa.Xerophthalmia was diagnosed if there was history of night blindness, or on examination, there were signs of conjunctival xerosis, Bitot’s spots, corneal xerosis or keratomalacia. The collected information was analysed by using the Microsoft Excel and the Epi info 3.4 software.In this study prevalence of VAD was found to be 2.9%. Prevalence of VAD among girls (4.1%) was significantly high than boys (1.9%). In present study 0.5% cases of night blindness, 1.4% cases of conjunctival xerosis and 2.1% cases of Bitot’s spot were found.
Iodine deficiency is the world''s most significant cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation and one of the easiest of the major nutritional deficiencies as well, which can be corrected by daily consumption of adequately iodized salt. Almost 2.2 billion people worldwide and around 200 million in India are at risk of the effects of iodine deficiency, which affects all the stages of human growth and development. Urban slum population constitutes the most neglected, under served section of the society and women by and large, quietly bear the brunt of all the disadvantages. Iodine deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems among these women, which is further aggravated by their ignorance, lower literacy, poverty and continuous trauma of neglect by their family members etc. Thus, an attempt has been made through this monograph which is based on the research work undertaken in the urban slums of Cuttack city, Orissa, India to explore various aspects regarding iodine status of women in reproductive age group. The analysis of the findings throws light on this very important issue which must be dealt with a sensible and pragmatic approach to curb this menace.
The book is about urban health issues of people living in low income settlements in Surat (India), one of the fastest growing Asian cities. It explains the barriers to access as well as utilisation issues in health and suggest ways to cope with the burden of health care expenditure through interventions like Micro Health Insurance. The book also has a gender dimension with a special emphasis on reproductive and child health issues.
Distress migration of the poor in rural areas to urban areas in the developing world has resulted in the proliferation of urban slums. These are areas characterised by poor housing, lack of access to safe water and improved sanitation, deplorable environmental conditions, among others posing adverse effects to human health and the environment as well. The lack of improved sanitation is particularly a big problem in slums because solid waste, excreta and untreated wastewater are discharged directly into surface water resources draining their catchments. In order to avoid pollution possibly derived from these sources, with implications for drinking water sources, it is necessary to understand the sources, composition and loads of chemical and microbial contaminants that emanate from the insanitary conditions that prevail in slums. This book looks at the extent of pollution of surface water resources arising from these sources and the best practices to address this issue.
Vitamin D deficiency has suggested that not only a biochemical abnormality, but is also associated with adverse effect of poor bone mineralization in growing children and adolescents. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency occurs in a high proportion of adolescent girls, regardless of what 25(OH)D level is used to define vitamin D deficiency. In addition, body mass index (BMI), milk intake, participation in organized sports and total physical activity all emerged as major determinants of vitamin D status. The relationship between vitamin D status and bone mass and bone biomarkers showed that girl participants with a higher vitamin D status had significantly higher bone mass at the total body and distal and proximal forearm, and higher concentrations of IGF-I, lower concentrations of BAP and a lower urine Dpd/creatinine ratio compared to those of poor vitamin D status. Therefore, continuous participation in high physical activity, and adequate vitamin D status throughout childhood and late adolescence could help achieve maximum peak bone mass at maturity and thus reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures later in life.
Urbanisation has always been associated with shifting of poverty from rural areas and poor living in the slums. India has low level of urbanisation even from developing countries perspectives yet its cities face widespread prevalence of poverty, lack of decent housing and urban poor living in inhuman conditions. The book discusses process, patterns and problems of urbanization, prevalence and incidence of urban poverty, conditions of slums in India and Haryana, initiatives undertaken by government of India for solving slum problems, socio-economic conditions of slum dwellers in the slums and possible causes of inter-household differences in income and expenditure. Book examines migration pattern and demographic profile, ownership of assets, occupational structure and pattern of household income and expenditure of slum dwellers to understand economic conditions of slum households. This book will be very helpful for the students of urban and development economics, the planners, the policymakers, the researchers in the field of urban environment, urban sociology and urban economics, the students and for all those who are interested in realising the goal of slum free cities.
Tuberculosis (TB) is as old as mankind. This remains a major public health problem. World Health Organization declared the re-emerging menace of TB a global emergency. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, but their nutritional status, especially of micronutrients, is still poorly documented. The presence of micronutrient deficiency has raised a question whether micronutrient supplementation would give the additional benefits for the patients of tuberculosis treatment program and what extent cytokine concentration in active tuberculosis would be modulated by anti-tubercular treatment and by micronutrient supplementation. This work emphasizes that zinc deficiency may indirectly influence the metabolism of Vitamin A via reduction of the levels of circulating proteins.
This study – an assessment of vulnerability of urban informal settlements to environmental hazards – was conducted in Korogocho as a response to the emerging world view that recognizes urban informal settlements as areas exposed to numerous environmental hazards and disasters. This is particularly evident in Kenya where the issue of proliferation of informal settlements and urban sprawl has been on the rise. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data to achieve its objectives. The study employed the use of community-based indicators system (Bollin 2003) for vulnerability assessment at a micro scale level. The indicators were weighted depending on the hazards, exposure and vulnerability, and coping capacity. The study results revealed that Korogocho is highly vulnerable to disease related hazards, floods, fires and droughts which culminate in famine and general insecurity. The lack of a cogent land-use plan for the area further complicates the problem. The findings from this study would go a long way in building disaster resilient cities in Africa.
Rural-Urban migration is the most crucial component of internal migration of any country. It plays an important role in poverty reduction and economic development. In Bangladesh rural-urban migration is the most important factor for rapid urbanization. In urban centres slum is a popular destination for poor rural-urban migrants. More than 15 million people lives in the slums of six divisional cities of Bangladesh. Megacity Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, alone holds about 3.4 million people in 4966 slums. This book focuses on the three slums including two largest slums of Bangladesh. This study reveals that predominantly migrants come from northern and southern part of the country. Majority of these migrants came after 1990. In most cases migrants left villages at a very early age, between their ages of 15 to 30. This study evaluates the migration objectives, status and the fulfillment of their migration objectives based on a survey on 373 randomly selected migrants. Getting easy access to informal economy and job searching are the predominant objectives of the migrants. Financial crisis, lack of job, river bank erosion are some significant reason for rural-out migration.
This book presents the report of a research study, conducted in slum elementary schools in Indian set up. The research study primarily examines and analyses the effect of school and home factors on the quality of elementary education. Descriptive survey method was used in the study. The study was conducted in randomly selected sample of 62 elementary schools in urban slums of Varanasi city. For collecting information four tools: School Questionnaire, Teacher Questionnaire, Home Environment Questionnaire and Classroom Observation Form were developed by the investigator. Furthermore, Competency based Mathematics and Language (Hindi) test, developed by the Department of Educational Measurement and Evaluation, NCERT were also used in the study. The results of the study revealed discernible effect of five school and home factors (i.e. basic facility available in school, instructional method adopted by teacher in curriculum transaction, teacher’s behavior in classroom, physical-natural environment of classroom and parents’ socio-economic status). The learning outcomes of elementary schools' children in slum areas were found not satisfactory.
In the era of increasing transnational migration over the last few decades, the growth of slums is one of the important consequences in the urban phenomena which should be deal sociologically. Hence this study is based on the dissertation work of migration and slums which has been conducted in the Darjeeling Himalayan town where the categories of so called "slums" is not much visible though it constitute the major portion of urban spaces. Further special reference has been given to the transnational migration from Nepal to India due to open border policy between the two countries. Last but not the least, the book tries to deal with various characteristic features of slums in contemporary Darjeeling Himalayan town.
Vitamin D is the precursor of 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, the steroid hormone required for calcium absorption, bone development and growth in children. 90% of vitamin D is produced in the skin from the action of sunlight and remaining 10% is obtained from dietary sources. Vitamin D deficiency is major issue in Pakistan and in pregnancy it has been associated with adverse outcomes like pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and preterm birth. Deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets in infants. This study was aimed to find level of vitamin D in relation with calcium in pregnancy and lactation. For the assessment of Vitamin D, blood samples of healthy, pregnant and lactating mothers were assessed with the help of ELISA. This book will highlight the status of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women and their comparison with healthy women.
The present project was designed to study the prevalence of Vitamin D, calcium and phosphate in healthy females in Lahore. In this study 88 blood samples of healthy females were used to assay the concentration of Vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. ELISA was performed for the assessment of Vitamin D in the laboratory of LCWU. The calcium and phosphate were measured by using commercially available kits on chemistry analyzer. Statistically data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 13.0). The mean value of Vitamin D was 42.76 nmol ± 2.05. The mean of calcium was 8.78 mg/dl ± 0.06 and the mean of phosphate was 3.07 mg/dl ± 0.07 among the study group. To see the influence of lifestyle on the serum levels of vitamin D in healthy females, the data was divided into different lifestyle factors. On the basis of the age the data was stratified into two groups. Deficiency of vitamin D was also found in 23.86% females of study population. 24 (27.27%) young females showed the deficiency of calcium and in 21 (23.86%) healthy females the deficiency of phosphate was observed. Vitamin D was significantly and positively correlated with calcium and phosphate (r= 0.622 and r= 0.656 respectively).
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a major public health problem in many developing countries. The length of time postpartum mothers were protected against VA depletion after receiving either 400,000 IU of VA in two divided doses or one 200,000 IU and a placebo dose 24 hour apart was determined. Secondly, the improvement in the vitamin A status of postpartum mothers on daily feeding 200 g (2.6 mg of Beta-carotene, 1508 IU of VA) of African eggplant leaves for three months was investigated. A significant improvement in VAS occurred within the treatment groups as assessed by the MRDR test at each time point (P < 0.0034), and both the 200,000 and 400,000 IU doses maintained VA adequacy for five months. There was a significant improvement in the VAS as assessed by MRDR test within the intervention group over the three months period (P = 0.0001) for leafy group.
Nearly half of the world population is living in different urban areas, which are growing at a very fast rate, both in developing and developed countries. As such, rural – urban migration is considered as an important demographic cause of urban growth and requires a special attention in the whole issue of urban transformation. It is found that, in developing countries, large chunk of rural urban migrants are often comprised of individuals with poor economic status. By and large, such migrants find it difficult to afford a regular house inside the core city and prefer to stay in the slums. Though it is perceived that slums provide a gigantic solution for the migrant workers coming to the city; by staying in such awful places, the dwellers suffer from a lot of problems too. It has been argued by many researchers that urban poverty, slum dwellers’ empowerment and people’s participation should acquire the centre stage of urban politics. In this context, the book elaborates the condition of a fast growing city in eastern India. It discusses the process of population growth, migration and slum growth in Bhubaneswar, and also analyses the condition of the migrant labourers in the slums.