The origins of individual organic pollutants in the atmosphere are of considerable interest, on the local scale for identifying pollution sources, and on the global scale because of potential effects on climate. Like many environmental pollutants the sources of chloroacetates are still not clearly identified. A method had been developed for quantifying biogenic contribution in environmental chloroacetates by radiocarbon analysis using off-line preparative capillary gas chromatography/ accelerator mass spectrometry (PCGC/AMS). 14C-Containing standards were synthesized. A method for isolation of chloroacetates from large-volume rain water and air samples and their preparation for PCGC separation was developed and optimized. Complete chromatographic resolution of the complex rain water extract can be achieved by two dimensional PCGC separation on two columns with different polarities, on a non-polar column, cryogenic trapping and further separation on a polar column gave pure chloroacetates. AMS-measurements of old and modern chloroacetate standards are done for calibration.
High Resolution Separation and Analysis of Biological Macromolecules,Part A: Fundamentals,270
Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop landfill disposal is the most important measure to take to decrease environmental impact. Instead the waste should be used as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources. A better alternative to landfill disposal is incineration. Recycling of plastic has slightly less environmental impact and energy consumption than incineration. Cardboard recycling is comparable to incineration. Source separation of food waste may increase transport emissions due to intensified collection. There are environmental advantages if the waste is digested and the biogas substitutes diesel in busses. Composting has no environmental advantages compared to incineration. The recycling options are more expensive than incineration. The increased cost must be seen in relation to the environmental benefits and decreased energy use.
Economic Analysis of Environmental Policy and Regulation
Sampling and Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants. A Complete Guide
Environmental Immunochemical Analysis Detection of Pesticides and Other Chemicals,
The marshes of Mesopotamia at the southern part of Iraq, the largest wetland in the middel east,represent a unique component of our global heritage. The area of marshes fluctuated between 15,000 to 20,000 square kilometers. The marshes cut across three Iraqi southern provinces: Misan,Dhi-Qar and Al-Basrah. The heartland of the marshes comprised three principal areas Al-Hammar, The Central and Al-Hawaizah marshes. During the last decades the Iraqi marshes subjected to many changes, these changes have great impact on marshes environmental and ecosystem. The goal of this book was to detect the environmental changes in Iraqi marshes that represented main land cover in the area for the period 1973-2004, using multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite images. Landsat images have been used as a tool for detecting and studying land cover changes and its impact on the environment of Iraqi Marsh area.
This publication presents the findings of the relationship between human activities and environment at local scale. It is anticipated to fill a literature gap in the nexus between population and environment. The thesis reveals that the correlates of land resource management at the household level vary across households. Despite the current government's propitious strategies to enhance the carrying capacity of the environment and ultimately improving the livelihood of the rural community, numerous rural households have been found to be still suffering from the consequences of severe degradation land and deterioration of water surfaces in the district. The causes of land degradation in rural Ethiopia in general and the study area in particular have been found to be wide-ranging and interlocked, requiring a meticulous integrated approach to deeply put an end to the prevailing problems of land resource management practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this glaring environmental problems occurring at varying spatial and temporal scales require a thorough and in depth study in order to address the problems.
In recent years, the demand of electric power has enlarged considerably. To satisfy this demand, electrical companies have to improve the efficiency of their transmission lines.The efficiency of the system is based mainly on the continuity of the service, avoiding fault that suppose economical losses for companies and users. To maintain this continuity one of the main problems that have been found is the effect produced by pollution on insulators of electric lines.All insulators, regardless of their material, are exposed to various electrical, mechanical and environmental stresses. The electrical stresses are the consequences of regular voltages and over voltages. The mechanical stresses are related to the presence of various loads, e.g. the weight of conductors and hardware, wind load, ice loads etc. The environmental stresses of prime importance are the many forms of precipitation and pollution.The performance of these high voltage ceramic and non-ceramic insulators is important for both dry and wet conditions. Long-term problems with them are related to the degradation of materials used for the insulators, corona phenomena on the insulator surface, and pollution flashover.
Separation, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometry in Inorganic Analysis,10
This research based book gives special consideration to environmental reporting practices in a sample of six companies representing the largest companies in both food retailing and processing sectors (FRS & FPS respectively) in the UK. This has been achieved through reviewing the corporate social and environmental reporting and disclosing practices’ literature and in-depth empirical analyses using two methods. The first is a trend analysis (TA) of the corporate environmental reporting practices over a five-year period. Second, a content analysis (CA), of the number of words and pages, was conducted on the current corporate environmental reporting practice as part of corporate social and/or responsibility reports.The results of the five years’ TA show that the volume of environmental reporting of FRS is found to be statistically higher than that of FPS. The quality of environmental information is assessed by the extent that the report includes narrative and quantitative information, visual tools and environmental policy, environmental targets, environmental initiatives, etc. It was found that FRS publishes high quality environmental information compared with of the FPS.
The last fifteen years have seen a surge in the development and use of modern quantitative methods in environmental and ecological data analysis. However, the available literature focus on only a few aspects of the methodology and leave out some of the important ones. This book provides a comprehensive account of both established and new techniques of multivariate data analysis appropriate to the study of environmental and ecological problems. This book is prepared using a recently most popular Programming Language called R, which is an open-source statistical environment. The choice of R for this purpose is influenced by the fact that it is powerful, free and the graphics capability is unparalleled. The book is a result of research, testing and successive refinements of methods and approaches. This comprehensive and flexible treatment of the most important multivariate data analysis techniques will be of great value to graduate students and professional researchers in ecology, agriculture, forestry and environmental management, and to statisticians and mathematicians working with ecological and environmental problems.
In recent years, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed as a separation analysis method suitable for routine applications. Its popularity may be attributed to its extremely high efficiency, short analysis time and wide application range. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has become popular as a powerful technique to solve many chemical analysis problems not only of neutral analytes but charged ones by using capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument without any alteration. The environmental impact due to the heavy application of agrochemicals to open fields must be reduced. As for the chiral agrochemicals, the use of only biologically active enantiopure isomers should also help to reduce the total amount of chemical released into the environment. Triazole fungicide is one of the most important categories of fungicides. It has excellent protective, curative and eradicant power against a wide-spectrum of crop diseases. Chirality is expected to play a crucial role in bioactivities of triazole fungicides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the applications of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in chiral triazole fungicides analysis.
Within the class of hard problems that the decision makers have to face we can surely consider those associated with both the analysis and the resolution of environmental conflicts with the aim of defining fair and shared solutions for all the involved decision makers and stakeholders. This book contains a detailed description of a particular manifold approach to the analysis and resolution of environmental conflicts as they are characterized in its opening chapters that define the overall framework. Within this framework we therefore present a certain number of models as well as a certain number of methods and procedures with an heavy descriptive value but also with some normative value. In this way we cover both auction and barter mechanisms as well as mechanisms for the formation and the interaction among coalitions. Moreover the book contains a wide enough collection of high level abstract procedures that can be used to analyze and resolve particular classes of environmental problems. The intended audience is composed of students and practitioners of System Dynamics and Environmental Modeling as well political decision makers involved in these fields.