The fifth edition of PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS is a major revision of the popular fourth edition. There are new chapters on process synthesis, computer-aided design, and design of chemical reactors. A traditionally strong feature of the text, economic analysis, has been revamped and updated. Another strength, equipment sizing and cost estimation, is updated and expanded as well. These improvements also reflect changes in equipment availability. The numerous real examples throughout the book include computer or hand solutions, and often both. There is a new increased emphasis on computer use in design, economic evaluation, and optimization. Concepts, strategies, and approaches to computer use are featured. These concepts are not tied to particular software programs and therefore apply to wide a range of applications software, of both current and future release. This widely used text is now more useful than ever, providing a "one-stop" guide to chemical process design and evaluation.
Decision Consequence Analysis (DCA) is a framework for improving the quality of decision results. The framework is a systematic, multi-criteria quantification of uncertainties and the opportunities for managing and reducing the potential negative consequences of such uncertainties. DCA is demonstrated throughout the text for each stage of system based management of environmental issues. DCA links disciplines and incorporates components of risk modelling, probability modelling and the psychology of decision making. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive unbiased decision making framework. Its foundation is accurately defining your problem statement and clearly vetting your objectives to build a structure for meaningful analysis of data. Employment of DCA consistently throughout the environmental industry can reduce decibel-driven, agenda-laden decision making, streamline expenditure of resources (financial, human, natural), and provide a clear path to the sustainable maintenance of balanced environmental systems as the penultimate objective.This book provides a toolbox to both the novice and experienced environmental practitioner of valuable techniques for addressing site specific environmental issues, as well as managing a portfolio of liabilities on an international scale. Ultimately, the authors are addressing the critical issue of balancing environmental asset balance sheets, whether on the scale of an individual project, across a company's portfolio, or for a community. The environmental manager who adopts the principles in this book will have greater confidence that environmental protection or restoration activities are providing measurable utility. The goal is that, through multidimensional resource management analysis and practices companies and societies can achieve sustainable maintenance of a balanced environmental system. Descriptions of technical, contracting and implementation processes are supported by detailed case studies to provide real world context rather than an academic exchange of theories. Techniques for addressing site specific environmental issuesMultidimensional resource management analysis Case narrative, data base, and GIS linked
This book presents the researches on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from manure treatment and temporal variation of ammonia in an urban environment. The application of solid manure can release large quantities of GHG. Its implication has scarcely been evaluated with respect to solid beef cattle manure. The behavior of CH4 and CO2 was examined in relation to manure treatment conditions. This study will help establish a management scheme for the GHGs from manure treatment. The on-line analysis of ammonia is conducted at two urban monitoring sites. Sources affecting its temporal variation are evaluated in a number of respects. Ammonia levels in the urban air exhibit unique temporal trends over seasonal cycle. The results indicate a potential linkage between ammonia levels and traffic activities.
Ranked set sampling (RSS)is a novel method of achieving observational economy compared to Simple random sampling (SRS. Often we are faced with situations where measurements on the actual variable are costly and time consuming. However, if we can rank the items by mere inspection, according to the variable without taking actual measurements, this often happens in environmental monitoring and assessment that require observational data.In this book we obtain the utility of ranked set sampling over the simple random sampling with the help of numerical illustrations. In the next chapter of the book we have proposed an adaptive cluster sampling theory based on ranked sets.
This Systematically organized and well-balanced book compresses within the covers of a single volume of 7 chapters which includes the attention of quantitative analysis in gall stones and serum of the patients of cholelithiasis and biliary complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, there is no report available in the literature to indicate any direct correlation between the various chemical constituents found in gall stones and sera of the patients of cholelithiasis. But this study also describes the comparison and correlation between these chemical constituents such as total cholesterol, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphate, calcium and iron in the serum of the patients of cholelithiasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy with those of apparently healthy control. Dedicated to my Father, Late Mr. Ram Kumar Sharma & mother, Mrs. Sushila Sharma.
Youth in Lesotho and throughout the world grow up surrounded by social environmental risk factors, as defined by Christle et al. (1999: 1) that make them susceptible to negative behaviours. However, some “resilient” young people are not affected by these risk factors; instead, they succeed in school and in life in general.This research aimed to explore and describe perceptions of resilience to environmental risk factors among youth in Lesotho. A qualitative approach, following an exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design, was employed, and purposive sampling was used to select resilient Form B/Grade 9 learners at Hlotse High School in Leribe, Lesotho, who participated in focus-group interviews. These learners were requested to nominate significant people in their lives (such as family members, teachers, friends and community members) who played a role in their resilience. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data from participants. The interviews were tape-recorded, and field notes were taken in order to document the data collected as well as record the researcher’s own perceptions and observations.
This book gives insight of the retro reflective fiber optic sensors and its use in different in industrial applications. It provides complete description of the generalized mathematical models developed using ray tracing method and its analysis in terms of performance parameters of the sensor. Mathematical models are developed with the purpose of designing sensor probes for innovative industrial applications. Systematic method of designing, fabrication and testing of different sensors for identified applications is described in detail. In addition, configuration details and experimental test reports for indigenously designed sensors are also presented in the book.
Ecologically, the environment is the sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of organism. The davelopment of thermal energy added new pollutants to the environment. The main pollutants of thermal power plant emission are SO2,CO2,NO2,CO,hydrocarbon and fly ash. The study of heavy metal content of fly ash from Singrauli region in India. The ashes were analysed for the presence of heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Heavy metals disrupt the metabolic processes of living organism. The presence of Pb ion and other heavy metals in the environment has become a major threat to plant, animal and human life due to their bioaccumulation tendency and toxicity. Here few normal plants and few vegetable plants have been selected for the study of bioaccumulation tendency. Our mesurement showed that uptake of heavy metals by plants of this region how much varries with specific places and type of plants.
Ambient air quality has been monitored in South Africa for the last four decades using a variety of methods. There is however, no agreed method and system in function to monitor the levels of heavy metals in ambient air in South Africa. This book focuses on determination of the levels of toxic metals (Cr, Ni, V, and Pb) of air particulate matter in the mining areas of the North West Province, and suggests an air particulate monitoring method and sampling system. It further emphasizes the need to not only determine the hourly, daily and annual levels of particulate matter for compliance with air quality standards; but to also determine the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric pollutants; to estimate the emitting sources, and evaluate the health effects on the exposed community, as well as to assess the environmental impacts when developing a monitoring procedure and system.
The report is based on the fieldwork that took place in three different Dighis of Coochbehar. The report that we present here comprises the results of the field survey. The information base has been collected from Sagar Dighi, Rajmatha Dighi and Sib Dighi. The report should be taken into account as a case study, the findings of which can possibly furnish some abstraction about awareness of the people regarding the preservation and the development of the water bodies. The study has various stipulations. However, it would be worth the effort if it inspires others to take the preventive measures against contaminating the water bodies and to preserve the water bodies. It will be highly exhilarating if we get anything put in from the persons who read the report with a scanner mind so that we can procure the befalling to emend the quality of the research works, which are being carried out.
Welding is an important process in the area of manufacturing. The defects in welding causes the entire assembly to collapse and hence it must be perfect and rigid. This book serves as a failure prevention guide for all types of welding process which will be helpful for everyone who do welding and also it will serve as a tool with complete solutions for all types of failures that may be expected or unexpected during the process.
With step-by-step color photographs, the highly visual Knots: The Complete Visual Guide is a clear, comprehensive, and practical guide to tying more than 100 knots. From choosing, using, and maintaining ropes, to learning about the different families of knots - from stopper knots; binding knots; bends; hitches; loops; plaits and sennits; and splices and whippings - Knots: The Complete Visual Guide is the ultimate guide to tying knots for every occasion, from outdoor use in a host of recreational activities, to practical functions around the home.
Terrestrial Vertebrates of Pennsylvania – A Complete Guide to Species of Conservation Concern
In a culture that rarely sees pregnancy as a journey to self-discovery, Body, Soul, and Baby offers a fresh perspective on this transformative life experience by showing women how to tune in to the cues offered by their bodies and souls-as well as by the babies growing within them-for a healthier pregnancy, a more fulfilling birth experience, and a deeper bond with their baby. Drawing on the best of both complementary and conventional Western medicine, Dr. Gaudet has written a groundbreaking guide that shows you how to become an active participant in your pregnancy. By working with the natural processes of pregnancy, you can discover how to: Pick up important signals from within about what you need, what your body needs, and what is right for both you and your baby; Tune in to cues that can alert you to early signs of problems; Use the mind-body connection to reduce stress, explore this remarkable life change, and bond with your baby; Nurture your whole self, including your evolving sexual and sensual needs; Make informed and conscious choices that reflect both your personal feelings and the latest medical information; Collaborate with your doctor or midwife, and build a supportive health-care team. Empowering, inspiring, and respectful of the wisdom of the female body and spirit, this invaluable book also includes advice on eating right and staying active, and natural and alternative approaches to pain relief. Whether you're already pregnant or preparing to be, the time to start listening to your inner wisdom is now, and the guide to doing it is here.