Chemical engineering students and chemical engineers are being asked to solve problems that are complex, whether the applications are in refineries, chemical or pharmaceutical plants. The aim of this book is to demonstrate the problems in chemical engineering which have to solve by Finite Difference Methods. This book is a thorough presentation of Finite Difference Methods used in Chemical Engineering. The goal of this book is to help you practice better chemical engineering. It also contains case studies with worked out examples to demonstrate the Finite Difference Method. This book is for the Chemical Engineer lays down a foundation for numerical problem solving and sets up a basis for more in-depth theory and applications. This text addresses the needs of senior undergraduates in chemical engineering, and students in applied chemistry and biochemical process engineering/food process engineering also.
Ionic liquids attract increasing interest as promising high performance fluids with low environmental impact that can be applied in the fields of chemistry, chemical engineering or materials science both in processes or as devices. However, the application of ionic liquids at an industrial scale is still limited, because the fundamental information and reliable data on their properties, environmental fate and impact are rare. In this work, we have studied different ionic liquids based on the imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium and ammonium cations and with three types of anions. Our objective was to examine if the ionic liquids containing functional groups (hydroxyl /ester /ether) in the cations effectively have lower environmental impact, and if their interesting properties are remained. We have determined several physico-chemical and biological properties considered important for the application and to quantify the environmental impact of chemicals. Additionally, we have developed some empirical and semi-empirical models based on molecular structure information for predicting some of these properties.
The fossil fuel stocks are limited and create pollution when consumed. We need to use them very rationally. Energy has quality as per second law of thermodynamics. Exergy analysis gives insight into quality of energy (exergy) lost in a given system. Exergy analysis focuses on magnitude and true location of energy loss. More effort need to be applied to place where there is more exergy destruction. This work is an energy and exergy analysis of a 43 MW captive co-generation steam power plant at a chemical plant. The co-generation plant produces power and steam from turbine can be used for process heating. Energy and exergy analysis is carried out for all individual components of the plant like boiler, turbine, condenser etc. Major exergy destruction is seen in combustor and heat recovery system. Frequent soot blowing and excess air control are recommended to improve performance of this plant. This can improve boiler efficiency by 2.2% and also reduce environmental emissions significantly. It is recommended to operate plant at high maximum continuous rating (MCR) for higher exergy efficiency of turbine.
The aim of this book is to address environmental impact assessment (EIA), a significant, anticipatory, environmental management tool. The book presents a international, multidisciplinary, ready-reference source to addresses EIA procedure. EIA process includes screening, scoping, public participation, impact identification, predication, evaluation, mitigation monitoring, environmental impact statements, decision-making and auditing. It provides a unique consideration for EIA implementation and practice. It provides methodology of plan assessment. The book is intended as a useful reference for the engineers in industry, governmental agencies academicians, legislators, decision makers, economists, industrial managers developers, consultants involved in the day-to-day application of EIA, students and to those who wish to learn more about EIA.
This is an essential guide to more than 1,000 years of classical music. Lose yourself in the fascinating story of classical music in "The Complete Classical Music Guide". Full of beautiful colour photographs, over 300 inspiring composer biographies, analyses of major classical works and information on every genre, style and form, instrument and ensemble, this is essential reading for every lover of classical music. Be inspired by the composers who have shaped the musical landscape over a millennia from the earliest music, through the Baroque and Romantic eras and right up to the modern classical music of today. Presented in a beautiful glossy slipcase in the shape of a grand piano, "The Complete Classical Music Guide" will hit the right note with any classical music fan.
This book has a concise information on the impact of criteria pollutants especially Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in air and soils around asphalt producing facilities.It trys to highlight the potential ecological and human defects such activity could pose in the environment if best available techniques(BAT)are not put in place to regulate the emission of pollutants during production processes.It also contains infomation on the environmental impact of such anthropogenic agents on the environment.The data, statistical analysis carried out and results obtained serve as a guide to individuals, regulators and Government agencies on how to better formulate policies and regulations that are ecologically and environmentally friendly for industries to operate.Finally, it could serve as a research reference for prospective academia working in related disciplines .
Heavy metal contamination is a major environmental issue and is of global concern. Pollutants such as oil, proteins and heavy metals arising from industrial activity, domestic waste, for example sewerage, contamination from mining activity, agriculture and infrastructure development all contribute to the contamination of soils and water ways and pose an increasing threat to the environment and living organisms. Softwood and hardwood barks represent waste products with unique chemical properties including significant quantities of tannins that have an affinity for scavenging and immobilizing these pollutants. This book provides an analysis of the literature that has been undertaken in relation to the reactions between heavy metals and barks and provides a fundamental approach to modeling and characterizing heavy metal immobilization in bark. Research is described which quantifies heavy metal immobilization and techniques for modifying barks such as high temperature microwave heating and pressure steaming to optimize their performance in relation to scavenging pollutant.
Diabetes is a widespread disease and, according to the WHO, in some cases has reached epidemic proportions. It is currently the fourth most common cause of death in the industrialized countries and is rapidly increasing in the developing countries. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islets, leading to efficientza insulin secretion. he highest rates of increase of type 2 diabetes are to be found in the developing countries or their communities, where an increase in the standard of living is associated with the adoption of the Western life-style and socioeconomic modernisation. It is a multifactorial disorder with genetic and environmental components. The primary aim of anti diabetic therapy is to reduce hyperglycemia levels and control glycaemia. As things stand at present, the drugs available on the market are old drugs such as metformin and the sulphonylureas and recently introduced drugs such as the ?-glucosidase inhibitors and thiazolinediones. As is understandable, the strategies aimed at controlling glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes differ and correspond to the different abnormalities presented by the diabetes.
The substances which cause pollution are known as pollutants. It may be defined as any substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment in such concentration that may have adverse effect on environmental health. The Indian Environment (Protection) Act (1986) defines 'pollutant' as any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration, as may be or tend to be injurious to environment.
Get the essential guide to making your events extraordinary! Event planners need professional-caliber information that explains how to decorate a venue for a special event - from assessing the client's decor needs and objectives to staying within a budget. Art of the Event serves as the ultimate guide to designing and decorating events and celebrations, from eight to 8,000 guests. Written by James C. Monroe, a Certified Meeting Professional (CMP) and Certified Special Events Professional (CSEP) with decades of experience in special event design and decoration, Art of the Event is divided into three comprehensive parts to help readers redefine the modern profession of event design: Principles, Processes, and Practices: examines aesthetics, the design process, and professional practices The Decorative Elements: describes the various decorative elements that are used in special events and discusses how to use them in practical and specific ways The Universe of Special Events: describes various types of events that the designer is asked to create and discusses the different requirements of each, including nonprofit events, corporate events, social events, weddings, fairs, and parades
Mutagenesis occupies a prime position in biological researches. It is the most important method for inducing alterations in qualitative and quantitative characters in a shortest possible time and provides good scope for selection. Scientists are working on different facts to accomplish a significant breakthrough in basic understanding of mutagenesis and also its applied value for the benefits of mankind. The induction of genetic variability becomes the main source of breeding work, thus replacing conventional breeding method which depends on the naturally occurring mechanism of genetic recombination. The effective selection of particular traits through mutagenesis is possible when the genotype component will be higher than environmental component with high genetic advance of the traits to next generation. In this study heavy metals have also been recognized as potent mutants as they posses genotoxic potential. Theses metal ions interact with the functional group of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides and substitute other metal ions already bound to these functional groups that can lead to various metabolic disorders and reduction in growth. Heavy metal pollutants are stable
Road-side dust originates from interaction of solid, liquid and gaseous materials produced from different sources. Street dusts often contain elevated concentrations of a range of toxic elements. The present study area lies in the coal mining dominated regions of Dhanbad district in eastern part of the Jharkhand state. Sampling of the road-side dusts was carried out along the roads of Jharia Coalfield. The physico-chemical parameters: particle size distribution, texture analysis, bulk density, particle density, total porosity, maximum water holding capacity, moisture content, volume expansion, specific gravity, pH, electrical conductivity and organic carbon and organic matter. Heavy metal analysis was carried out with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Principal Component Analysis was conducted on the heavy metals in order to know the correlation between the variables, the sources of contamination etc. The contamination level of the heavy metals was also computed as Geoaccumulation index. The road dust samples were mainly sandy in nature and had a high bulk and particle density, low porosity, water holding capacity and low organic carbon and matter content, hence a high pH
A “convex space” has been taken as the basic unit of urban space and with a sampling of convex spaces spread all over the study area constitute a representation of the whole public urban spaces in the built form, in this case the central Business District of Nairobi. Empirical investigation has employed several data collection methods and techniques. By aid of statistical package for social scientists computer program, this data has been subjected to a scientific analysis and synthesis. The research has adopted the multiple regression models that significantly explain the variation of each environmental problem have been developed and documented. These models are significant at 95 degrees significant level. This proves that urban environment has a relationship with urban design, hence the research has accepted the alternative hypothesis that a relationship exist between design and urban environmental management. Through –synthesis, independent variables explaining the dependent variables have been sorted out into urban patterns. These urban patterns have a further been discussed in the light of developing sustainable city environments.
Environmental challenges and issues of Pakistan are associated primarily with an imbalanced social and economic development from last two to three decades. This challenge is further compounded with rapid urbanization due to a shift of population from rural to urban areas. Thus, all major cities of Pakistan face haphazard, unplanned expansion leading to increase in pollution. Main factors causing degradation to air quality are, a) rapidly growing energy demand and b) a fast growing transport sector. In the cities, widespread use of low quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of vehicles on roads, has led to significant air pollution problems. Although Pakistan''s energy consumption is still low by world standards, but lead and carbon emissions are major air pollutants in urban centres. This book is re-examine the relationship between environmental and growth factors in the specific context of Pakistan, by using a latest techniques of cointegration. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The results are quite robust not only in terms of statistical powers, but also in terms of economic instinct.