Monitoring of coastal water quality is done on regular basis in most oceanic countries since it plays an important role in detection and evaluation of marine water pollution. The book deals with an exhaustive account of present status of marine environment and sources, types & effects of marine pollutants on water and marine organisms. Standard Methods for physical (Colour, Odour, Temperature, Turbidity, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Conductivity), chemical (pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Carbon dioxide, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Salinity, Alkalinity, Orthophosphate, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, Silicates), microbiological (Presumptive test, Confirmed test, Completed test, Gram staining, Motility test, IMViC tests) and biological (Chlorophyll a, Macrobenthos: Population density, Biomass, Diversity Indices) assessment of coastal water were described along with methods of Water Sampling (Traditional & Recent Approaches) and Soil Texture Analysis. Data presented in the book should be useful to undergraduate, postgraduate and research students of Botany, Zoology, Microbiology & Environmental Sciences.
Environmental Impact Assessment contains the detailed study about the adverse as well as good effects on the plants, human, animals and environment. The past failure of development planning processes to take adequate account of the detrimental impacts of economic development activities led to the advent of environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes. The purpose of these processes is to provide information to the decision makers and the public about the environmental implications of proposed actions before decisions are made. This report is related to EIA of a road project, which includes the steps of EIA, collection of basic information about the project, for determining the various possible impacts over the surrounding environment. Study is carried for the analysis of different types of pollutions like air pollution, water pollution; noise pollution also the related pollutants. Data collection of air pollutants at different locations and from collected data graphs is plotted and with that the comparison was done in between air pollutants in the atmosphere. Collection of water samples from different locations to study the water quality parameters as well as the concentration o
Pinch analysis enables a fast approach to an optimum thermal performance, while bringing new insights and improving the understanding of the nature of various thermodynamic processes in a plant. A graphical pinch based methodology is discussed in this book along with direct case studies of pinch analysis for a given stream data. These case studies mention about the various steps involved in a graphical pinch based analysis. Pinch analysis is supposed to be of limited use in industries, on the contrary pinch technology based methods can be used in many types of chemical as well as agriculture industries. The simple graphical approach used in this book is designed to determine the hot and cold utility targets, and it shares the same intuitive, insight-driven characteristics of pinch analysis techniques. Through the approach followed, pinch point for particular ?Tmin (10 degree Celsius in book) can be easily determined.
When waste is deposited at dumpsites it is usually forgotten yet it continues to interact with environmental factors to become even more dangerous to both people and the environment through soil, water and air pollution. This may cause ecological damage resulting in the ecosystem failing to sustain both animal and plant life. People may also contract diseases from polluted environmental media through contaminated food, air or water. In this study the aim was to evaluate the role of environmental factors in the distribution of pollutants around Gweru dumpsite. The study compared the concentration levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (cd) and sulphides (SO2) around the dumpsite with the natural concentration levels of the same chemicals in the surrounding areas. It also determined whether there is a significant (p>0.05) relationship between the concentration levels of pb, cd and sulphides and environmental factors specifically slope, soil bulk density, flow direction, soil infiltration rate and distance around the dumpsite.Results of the study established that there is a significant (p>0.05) difference between the concentration levels of each of the chemicals within and around the dumpsite.
This research work was conducted jointly in the Pharmacy & Microbiology laboratory at BRAC University and Drug test laboratory of Center for Advance Research in Science, Dhaka University, Bangladesh. The objective of this research work to identify active compound which have antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal activity.I do 12 month laboratory work regularly to successfully finish this research project. I also need extra 2 month at beginning of this research project to collect my targeted medicinal plants from various remote area of Bangladesh and for processing this plant materials.At last it was possible to complete this work because of some people they cordially help from first to last of this project.
This research based book gives special consideration to environmental reporting practices in a sample of six companies representing the largest companies in both food retailing and processing sectors (FRS & FPS respectively) in the UK. This has been achieved through reviewing the corporate social and environmental reporting and disclosing practices’ literature and in-depth empirical analyses using two methods. The first is a trend analysis (TA) of the corporate environmental reporting practices over a five-year period. Second, a content analysis (CA), of the number of words and pages, was conducted on the current corporate environmental reporting practice as part of corporate social and/or responsibility reports.The results of the five years’ TA show that the volume of environmental reporting of FRS is found to be statistically higher than that of FPS. The quality of environmental information is assessed by the extent that the report includes narrative and quantitative information, visual tools and environmental policy, environmental targets, environmental initiatives, etc. It was found that FRS publishes high quality environmental information compared with of the FPS.
Cleaning our environment by using environment friendly microoraganism! This is the promise contained in this book as it tells you, very simply, how oxidation mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants? This is done by the use of microbial processes; this is the use of indigenous or introduced microorganism to decontaminate the sites. The white rot fungi P.chrysosporium and P.sordida are used for this purpose. The research work mainly focuses the ability of fungi to degrade pollutants by applying different scales of methodology, qualititative as well as quantitative enzymatic activity tests. This is useful book for one and all, even though its work had been done keeping the future aspects of degradation of other dangerous organic materials like pesticides. Chemical azo-dyes, chloro compounds etc.It's in my best, typical effort showing you the other way to concentrate that biodegradation are the predominant means of elimination of toxicity of those materials which interfere with human health, the quality life and natural functioning of ecosystem!
Recently, rapid and non-destructive magnetic measurements have been increasingly used as a proxy method for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban areas. Environmental magnetism involves the application of rock and mineral magnetic techniques to situations in which the transport, deposition, or transformation of magnetic grains is influenced by environmental processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Magnetic measurements of pollutants provides highly efficient, rapid and inexpensive tool for monitoring and assessment of pollutants in different spheres. The magnetic technique in conjunction with microscopic-sub-microscopic observations and magnetic analysis of urban roadside dust, aerosols and particulate matters can be used as a powerful tool for assessment of pollution features in an urban to semi-urban area in terms of source and spatial distribution of anthropogenic magnetic materials and associated heavy metals. With all these inputs, this book will scale new height of popularity in the academic community. I hope this book will be helpful to the students of MS, MSc, MTech, earth and environmental scientists, engineers and researchers worldwide.
This book involves inter-disciplinary research in electrical, environmental, and chemical engineering. It describes methodologies and techniques of environmental monitoring for the detection of hazardous materials by using microelectronic sensors. Design considerations focus on improving key areas such as: (1) sampling methodology; (2) context awareness; and (3) sensor placement. Moreover, design techniques using wireless sensor networks (WSN) are applied to the detection of methylmercury (MeHg) and environmental parameters affecting its formation (methylation) and deformation (demethylation).
In the last few years, Upper Egypt had industrial development in different industrial activities especially cement industry, which consequently increases the input of chemical pollutants and particulate matter and its related harmful substances to the atmosphere, which in turn, causing health risks. Natural sources of radiation are cosmic radiation and terrestrial radiation arising from the decay of naturally occurring radioactive substances. One hundred years of industrialization has produced and redistributed increasing amounts of radioactive matter. Industrialization releases additional radiation through mining, coal combustion, cement production, street construction and other human activities.
Plants produce several secondary metabolites with varying characteristics such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavanoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, tannins etc. The book includes HPTLC based Phyto-chemical fingerprinting monographs of extracts of thirty seven Indian plants and four essential oils with detailed extraction methods and HPTLC sample preparation. The study serves a base work for further analysis of individual compound and searching their unnoticed bioactivity. Nowadays HPTLC is a routine analytical technique, facilitated with very easy sample preparation and multiple sample analysis on a same plate and solvent system, thereby saving a time. Also simultaneous chromatographic analysis of samples and standards on the same plate under identical conditions gives results with better accuracy and precision. Another advantage of HPTLC is that, the chromatogram can be scanned at broad range of wavelengths and recorded in computer as a digital profile and used as a reference and further comparative analysis. Thus HPTLC is a modern standardization technique having a large applicability in the field of plant material analysis, stability tests of extracts and finished products.
The worldwide use of volatile organic compounds and halogenated organic compounds is estimated to be more than 30 billion pounds per year. Organic halides, especially, chlorofluorocarbons, polychloroethenes, polychloroethanes, and polychloromethanes form one of the main groups of environmental pollutants present in the soils and underground waters of many industrial sites. The contamination due to these pollutants is particularly dangerous in view of their toxicity and carcinogenic character. Among several strategies, electrochemical methods are efficient for the analysis of electron transfer-bond breaking problems in view of simplicity, ease of experimentation, and possible generalizations. The monograph starts with a brief account on the theoretical principles involved in the reductive cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds and the main experimental methods used in the analysis, viz. cyclic voltammetry and convolution potential sweep voltammetry. Other chapters describe the application of above principles and methods in evaluating thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the reactions.
This book contains all advanced spectroscopic methods which are very very essential to identification of a chemical compound. This book will be useful to Master degree students of chemistry, food science, biochemistry etc. The content of this book is designed in such a way that it will be well suited to graduates and post graduate courses of all science disciplines. To carryout the analysis and identification of a new compound.
Economic Analysis of Environmental Policy and Regulation