Sampling and Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants. A Complete Guide
The origins of individual organic pollutants in the atmosphere are of considerable interest, on the local scale for identifying pollution sources, and on the global scale because of potential effects on climate. Like many environmental pollutants the sources of chloroacetates are still not clearly identified. A method had been developed for quantifying biogenic contribution in environmental chloroacetates by radiocarbon analysis using off-line preparative capillary gas chromatography/ accelerator mass spectrometry (PCGC/AMS). 14C-Containing standards were synthesized. A method for isolation of chloroacetates from large-volume rain water and air samples and their preparation for PCGC separation was developed and optimized. Complete chromatographic resolution of the complex rain water extract can be achieved by two dimensional PCGC separation on two columns with different polarities, on a non-polar column, cryogenic trapping and further separation on a polar column gave pure chloroacetates. AMS-measurements of old and modern chloroacetate standards are done for calibration.
The rising global incidence of cancer diseases as documented in recent reports of the World Health Organization (WHO) is an issue of serious concern, because the increase is occurring at a faster rate of 48 % in developed countries and 52 % in developing countries. It is estimated that the burden of cancer in these countries will increase to epidemic proportions in the 21st century. Dietary, lifestyle, environmental and chemical factors have been suspected to play significant roles in the occurrence of cancers. Thus, to guard the health of people against mutagenic/carcinogenic agents, it is important to have a short term testing method to be used in screening agents for their carcinogenic/mutagenic potentials. This book has shown positive modification of short term bacterial assay for the screening of environmental pollutants and therapeutic agents for their mutagenic potentials. It also elucidated the modulatory roles of antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the mutagenicity and toxicities of rifampicin as there is increased risk of developing tuberculosis when there is poverty, HIV/AIDS and poor environmental hygiene.
This book covered a broad spectrum study of arsenic contamination in drinking and irrigated water and its impact on food crops and local community lived in arsenic affected areas of Pakistan. Speciation of arsenic in water samples was carried out by advance preconcentration methods for trace analysis. It is a first attempt to elucidate the chemical fractionation of geochemical bonded fractions of arsenic in soil and sediment. Moreover, the translocation of arsenic from growing media (irrigation water and soil)to local agricultural crops (grain crops and vegetables)was addressed well. The impact of arsenic of human was also studied using scalp hair samples as biomarker and detail study of risk assessment was performed. At the end the removal of arsenic from water was done by using biomass taken from a local plant (Acacia nilotica). The effects of various parameters vis, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature and exposure time for bio-sorption of As were investigated in detail. The complete characterization, chemical equilibrium , kinetic and thermodynamic study was carried out. The removal of arsenic by biomass of A. nilotica was > 95%.
Taking time to watch and interact with pets provides a welcome break from the stress of daily cares and concerns. Aquariums are ideal for creating a soothing, tranquil, meditative place to relax and connect with nature, in home or office. They can even pull kids away from mindless TV to learn about prehistoric species and the cycle of life.The present book deals with an exhaustive account of history, benefits and types of aquariums, basic aquarium equipments, aquarium fishes, invertebrates and plants, food and feeding of aquarium fishes, setting up and maintenance of an aquarium and fish diseases and treatments. Data presented in the book should be useful to undergraduate, postgraduate and research students of Botany, Zoology and Environmental Sciences and also to the aquarium owners to ensure the health of fish and successful maintenance of an aquarium.
Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology is an emergent course in Ethiopia. It has great role in mitigating solution for different environmental stresses. All human activities irrespective of the scope and severeness have an impact in soil, air, water and life of the receiving bodies. Thus, the main focus of this book is to study the fate of chemical pollutants in the environment. This book comprises five chapters such as, Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, Aquatic Chemistry and Water pollution, Atmospheric Chemistry and Air pollution, Soil Chemistry and Pollution and Environmental Toxicity and Toxicology. The overall goal of this book is to gain an understanding of the fundamental chemical processes that are central to a range of important Environmental problems and to utilize this knowledge in making critical evaluations of these problems.
Organic pollutants emission poses a serious problem to the environment and human health. As the demand for reduced organic pollutants emissions increases, the market for effective and low-cost control technologies also improves. Electron beam (EB) is one of the most promising technologies to remove low concentration of organic pollutants from large quantities of off-gases. This book reviewed literatures on organic pollutants, their emission source, transformation in the atmosphere, health and environmental impacts, and present control technologies. The principle of radiation technology to treat organic pollutants in the gaseous phase was described. The detailed experimental set up and experimental results of selected representative organic pollutants' degradation under EB irradiation were reported and discussed, and mechanisms of their decomposition under EB-irradiation were elaborated with the aid of chemical model calculation. This text-reference book should be useful for practicing environmental engineers, chemical engineers, radiation chemistry and chemistry students, or anyone else who may be interested in pollution control technologies.
International research indicates that environmental management leads to profitability and competitive advantage in a firm. The lack of supporting empirical evidence begs the question whether environmental management does indeed increase a firm’s profitability. The study delineates environmental management and profitability and examines the causal relationship between the two factors. Data is collected from ten industries in South Africa and the research model tested using confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis with latent variables. The model supports the hypothesis that environmental management increases a firm's competitive advantage. Environmental management, however, is limited to the minimization of natural resource consumption. The work is informative to executive and senior managers responsible for the implementation of environmental management systems; to economists, industrial and chemical engineers; and students in the field of statistics.
This book investigates the water pollution due to Water-soluble chemical waste by multivariate statistical analysis. Also explains the different statistical methods for water quality assessment, including latest concepts and developments in the field with global and user-friendly approach. This features a systematic introduction to the types of water resources, contamination due to waste, origin of water pollutants, their effects on the environment and methods available to measure them. It also suggests statistical principles for controlling and monitoring of pollution-causing chemical waste in reference to highly populated city. Statistical Model capable to be formulated for estimating the location wise pollution load generation and pollution level forecasting and provide as a decision support system for better management of water resources and control of water pollution. The overall variation in the chemical parameters has been demonstrated in form of a seasonal assessment for different samples. Results were given by Complete statistical evaluation containing descriptive statistics, Correlation matrix, Principal Component Analysis, Factor analysis and Cluster analysis.
Contamination of fish and aquatic environment is one of the most important contemporary problems that preoccupied many scientists over recent years. Fish is considered as one of the most foods susceptible to contamination from various sources either from natural environment or during hunting, transferring and handling. Therefore fish play an important role in transport of pollutants whether chemical pollutants such as heavy metals or microbial contaminants such as pathogenic bacteria which could cause serious risk to the health of consumers. This book provides valuable scientific information’s about contamination of fish and aquatic environment with heavy metals and microbiological pollutants. Also, this book provides information’s about sources of heavy metals, uptake, transport and accumulation of heavy metals in fish, toxicity of heavy metals, levels of heavy metals in fish as well as effect of technological methods (blanching, frying, roasting, baking and soaking in different solutions) on the reduction of some heavy metal levels. This book is useful to professionals in environmental pollution field also for workers in the field of food technology especially fish processing.
Build students' confidence and potential for exam success with the practical and visual approach to the latest Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Environmental Management syllabuses. Packed with key ideas, summarized concepts and practice questions, this guide includes all of the tools needed to flourish in Cambridge exams and beyond. This Revision Guide is part of the most comprehensive resource package for Environmental Management, including a Student Book and Teacher Pack to ensure effective and complete coverage of the Environmental Management course.
Owls of the United States and Canada – A Complete Guide to Their Biology and Behavior
The accumulation of heavy metals in soils especially in mining environments is of increasing concern to researchers in the Agricultural industry. Consumption of vegetables and fruits containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. The present study investigated the concentration of heavy metals: Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb in soil as well as fruit samples collected from the rehabilitated sites in the Sierra Rutile environs to evaluate the possible health risks to human body through food chain transfer. The sampled plants showed high translocation factor values (TF>1) implying that they could be labelled as accumulators of pollution. It can be concluded that the crops/plants grown in the rehabilitated lands in the Sierra Rutile environs absorb significant levels of some heavy metals from the polluted soil