Contamination of fish and aquatic environment is one of the most important contemporary problems that preoccupied many scientists over recent years. Fish is considered as one of the most foods susceptible to contamination from various sources either from natural environment or during hunting, transferring and handling. Therefore fish play an important role in transport of pollutants whether chemical pollutants such as heavy metals or microbial contaminants such as pathogenic bacteria which could cause serious risk to the health of consumers. This book provides valuable scientific information’s about contamination of fish and aquatic environment with heavy metals and microbiological pollutants. Also, this book provides information’s about sources of heavy metals, uptake, transport and accumulation of heavy metals in fish, toxicity of heavy metals, levels of heavy metals in fish as well as effect of technological methods (blanching, frying, roasting, baking and soaking in different solutions) on the reduction of some heavy metal levels. This book is useful to professionals in environmental pollution field also for workers in the field of food technology especially fish processing.
Food-borne illness is a major international problem which is mainly caused due to reduced economic growth. Most commonly, street food provides source of affordable nutrients to the majority of people particularly the low income group in developing countries. Loads of micro-organisms in these food associated with the type of ingredients used, surroundings of food preparation etc. This study was carried out especially in Kathmandu Valley where the rate of consumption was very high. Isolation of micro-organisms from these food was main focus of study. Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as most common food poisoning organism so its antibiotic susceptibility and growth in varying salt concentration was specific objective of study. This book precisely focus on microbiological analysis of food along with its effect on general people.
This Book includes and answer all Questions about: How to estimate fish resource potential; Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the corresponding Effort (fMSY) for fresh water Lake. What are the reproductive biological aspects of Oreochromis Niloticus and Cyprinus Carpio species? What is the relation between the physico-chemical and biological parameters with fish distribution, abundances and frequency occurrence in fresh water Lakes like Lake Ardibo? How can we review the existing fisheries management of a Lake and how come up with possible indicative management options.
Baker’s yeast is a key baking ingredient and this fascinating food starter has a long history. It was used to raise bread in Egypt from 4000 BC. Its massive introduction in the 19th century, baker’s yeast certainly had a major impact on bread making technology. It is still one of the most important fermentation products based on volume of sales and its use for bread-making which considered as a staple food for large section of world’s population. There is an increasing demand for such product - baker’s yeast - in order to satisfy the needs of over growing population. This necessitates that should be made to ensure their hygienic suitability. This study was, therefore, executed to monitor the microbial content of baker’s yeast taken from retail markets in an attempt to gain some insight into potential microbial related problems associated with these products. Hence, the yeast used must be fully active with a high viable cell count, determining the yeast cell count and the viability were carried out. The last part of this study dealt with the main factors affecting the production of baker’s yeast in molasses medium in order to determine the optimum conditions for yeast production.
The present study investigated the prevailing condition of water quality with surface water movement in relation to the existing bridges across the Batticaloa lagoon,Sri Lanka. Kottamunai and Puthupaalam bridges and associated roads not only act as barrier to prevent the mixing of lagoon water but also they change physio chemical parameters by concentrating the pollutants in surface waters. Physio chemical biological parameters of salinity, turbidity, surface water velocity, density, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, pH, phosphate, plankton and fish abundance were measured routinely at approximately a week interval for six months from 2nd July 2008 to 22nd December 2008 over the wet and dry seasons on either sides of Kallady, Kottamunai and Puthupaalam bridges. The existing conditions were found to have strong impact on salinity, temperature, surface velocity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, pH and also on fish migration and plankton assemblages. The trends in these parameters were largely determined by surface water flow and lagoon geomorphology.
The present work, submitted under the title, “Microbial and Histochemical Analysis of Fish Samples Sold in Fish Markets of Bhopal with Special Reference to Their Health Hazards to Human Beings”, incorporates the results of studies carried out on the infestation, isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi collected from different fresh and diseased fishes, fish fillets and streaks, roasted fishes, dried salted fishes, ice used for fish packing, water used by fishermen, swabs from market floors, implements of fishermen and swabs from fishermen’s hands. It also incorporates the results of drug sensitivity tests against bacteria, histochemistry and biochemical estimation of different organs of fishes.
A field study was carried out in four fish farms in different localities in Egypt to investigate the water quality of fish farms with different water sources (fresh , brackish , agriculture and ground water) and its effect on fish performance ( growth & survival rate ) beside parasite infestation of cultured fish . Results revealed that although the average values of physio-chemical and bacteriological parameters were within the acceptable limits at water inlets in examined farms; a great variation were recorded among both Farms and ponds within the same farms as water in ponds of farm (IV) showed a significant increase in the measurable parameters P
The net return of effluent water fish production farmers was higher by Rs.1933.53 per acre over fresh water fish production farmers. The return per rupee of investment of fresh water fish production was Rs.1.64 and among effluent water fish production farmers it was almost same at Rs.1.67. The analysis of resource productivity indicated that in both fresh water fish production and effluent water fish production, fish seed, area, and labour had greater influence on gross returns. Further, it was found that fish seed and labour were under used by fresh water fish production farmers where as fish seed, labour and area were under used by effluent water fish production farmers. Producer share in the consumer price was 92.25, 89.25 and 79.41 percent in channel-I, channel-II and channel-III, respectively. The main constraints faced by the farmers were high cost coupled with inadequate quality fingerlings, inadequate loan facility, risk in marketing and high cost in fish catch. The study better revealed that the effluent water fish production farmers had higher economic efficiency than the other group.
Phytoplankton (microscopic algae) usually occurs as unicellular, colonial or filamentous forms and is mostly photosynthetic and is grazed upon by the zooplankton and other organisms occurring in the same environment. The phytoplanktons stand at the baseline of food webs in aquatic environments and are very sensitive to changes in the environmental conditions. Plankton, particularly phytoplankton, has long been used as indicators of water quality. They flourish both in highly eutrophic waters while a few others are very sensitive to organic and/or chemical wastes. Some species have also been associated with noxious blooms sometimes creating offensive tastes and odours or toxic conditions. Because of their short life cycles planktons respond quickly to environmental changes, and hence the standing crop and species composition indicate the quality of the water mass in which they are found.
This book provides an informative overview of chemical reaction safety and managing hazards associated with carrying out chemical reactions.
Aquaculture may be designed for several purposes: for food production, for ornamental purposes, for recreation (sport fishing), as bait fish, for production of food additives such as seaweed. Aquaculture may be extensive or intensive. Good hygiene is essential for hatchery raising success and fish production. Ideally, you should not use the same equipment for more than one tank. However, some much more important guidelines must be followed. This edition aims to present some relevant topics in fresh water fish management that may be of interest for fish farms and for the other interested in veterinary medicine. In addition, to translate advanced information into fish production.