This book covered a broad spectrum study of arsenic contamination in drinking and irrigated water and its impact on food crops and local community lived in arsenic affected areas of Pakistan. Speciation of arsenic in water samples was carried out by advance preconcentration methods for trace analysis. It is a first attempt to elucidate the chemical fractionation of geochemical bonded fractions of arsenic in soil and sediment. Moreover, the translocation of arsenic from growing media (irrigation water and soil)to local agricultural crops (grain crops and vegetables)was addressed well. The impact of arsenic of human was also studied using scalp hair samples as biomarker and detail study of risk assessment was performed. At the end the removal of arsenic from water was done by using biomass taken from a local plant (Acacia nilotica). The effects of various parameters vis, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature and exposure time for bio-sorption of As were investigated in detail. The complete characterization, chemical equilibrium , kinetic and thermodynamic study was carried out. The removal of arsenic by biomass of A. nilotica was > 95%.
This book will provides the readers with basic as well as advanced knowledge of bacterial precipitation and its uses for toxic arsenic removal from water. Iron and Manganese are used for producing bacterial precipitation and harvested for removal of arsenic. Batch tests as well as upflow reactor are used for adsorptive removal of arsenic from water. Lastly, tea-bag test, suspension test and ABIL test are also conducted in context practical uses. Bio-iron showed a significant amount of arsenic removal with compare of available technology. Costs are also calculated and compared. It is found that this method is cost effective for third world countries like Bangladesh.
Microbubble-based methods, in recent times, have been widely used for purification of water and wastewater. Microbubbles have several physicochemical properties, which make them eminently suitable for wastewater treatment.These properties have been discussed in this book from the perspective of application. Various types of microbubble generators and their operation principles have been discussed. Many practical applications of ozone, oxygen and air microbubbles, some of which are currently at various stages of commercialization, have been presented. In addition, directions for future research of microbubble technology and their potential applications have been identified in this book.
In the context of very high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Bangladesh, bacteriological quality received priority as a criterion for drinking water supply. Groundwater is normally free from pathogenic microbes and adequately available in shallow aquifers for development of low-cost tubewell based water supply. Bangladesh achieved a remarkable success by providing 97% of the rural population with bacteriologically safe tube well water. Unfortunately, arsenic in excess of acceptable limit has been found in tubewell water in most parts of Bangladesh. Water quality studies conducted so far have shown that dug wells have reduced arsenic ingestion but exposed population to high levels of health risk from microbial contamination. This study aims at understanding the nature of contamination of dugwell water and decontamination by in-situ chemical disinfection. For preliminary water quality analysis, dugwells were selected from Sirajdikhan, Singair, Daudkandi and Sharsha upazilas. After preliminary water quality analysis, two dugwells with high microbial contamination from Sirajdikhan and one dugwell with high arsenic content from Sharsha were selected for decontamination study.
Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by In-situ Treatment simulated experimental studies were carried out to understand the process and factors that affect the efficiency of arsenic removal from groundwater. Arsenic removal technologies by ex-situ method are very well researched and technically implemented. Compared to this, in-situ water treatment is a very new and innovative technology. The process of in-situ treatment of groundwater virtually transfers the processes of the conventional above ground water treatment plants into the aquifer. The underground aquifer is used as a natural biochemical reactor and acts as a filter itself. In this method, subterranean groundwater is treated by using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizing agent. In-situ process is cost efficient, free from sludge handling problem, free from uses of any chemical compounds, easy to operate and handle. It is eco friendly and can remediate organic contaminants, iron, manganese and many other impurities in addition to arsenic.
Due to relatively cold climate and an abundance of soils rich in organic carbon, the concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water of Boreal region is high and its removal during conventional water treatment is complicated. This thesis show possibility to determine the NOM removal efficacy during humic rich raw water treatment using inexpensive chemical methods, which allow detection of specific organic compounds removal efficiency during each water treatment stage. During monitoring of the water treatment process the correction necessary to optimize the coagulation process of humic rich water was determined. In this research the degradation rate of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in different type of water produced from humic rich raw waters was determined and factors affecting biodegradation rate were evaluated. Results indicate that NOM significantly affects water quality in water distribution network, where the NOM accumulation in loose deposits of water supply system and biological degradation processes as a result of inefficient operation of biological filter takes place.
Ground water is one of the main sources of drinking water especially in rural areas of India.Groundwater is generally regarded as safe to drink. At the same time ground water is rich with various minerals based on the minerals available in that particular Aquifer. Presence of these minerals beyond prescribed levels is harmful for human consumption. Some of them are Arsenic, Iron, Fluoride, Nitrates, salinity etc. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a natural occurring high concentration of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater, which became a high-profile problem in recent years due to the use of deep tube wells for water supply, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. Arsenic is treated by some methods like adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange, coagulation, filtration etc The objective of this work is to propose a techno-economic feasible water technology for removal of arsenic from Ground water.
Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition caused by elevated levels of arsenic in the body. The dominant basis of arsenic poisoning is from ground water that naturally contains high concentrations of arsenic. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning begin with headaches, confusion, severe diarrhea, and drowsiness. As the poisoning develops, convulsions and changes in fingernail pigmentation called leukonychia striata may occur. Aldrich Mee’s lines (leuchoparonychia) on nails are also seen. When the poisoning becomes acute, symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, blood in the urine, cramping muscles, hair loss, stomach pain, and more convulsions. The organs of the body that are usually affected by arsenic poisoning are the lungs, skin, kidneys, and liver. The final result of arsenic poisoning is coma and death. Arsenic is related to heart disease (hypertension related cardiovascular), cancer, stroke (cerebrovascular diseases), chronic lower respiratory diseases,and diabetes. Arsenic may be measured in blood or urine to monitor excessive environmental or occupational exposure, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized victims or to assist in forensic investigation.
Many people in the world are exposed to chronic arsenicosis through drinking water with consequent health effects. In Italy, the new regulation value for As in drinking water caused the inactivation of old treatment plants, the upgrading of the existing plants and design and construction of new treatment plants. This book was written by the Working Group “Arsenic in water for human consumption” that operated at the University of Brescia (Italy) from 2005 to 2009. The authors of this book have different areas of expertise (geologists, chemists, toxicologists, sanitary-environmental engineers, jurists, biologists). The book gives an overview of As contamination, the analytical methods for As determination, the processes for As removal, four case studies concerning the application of different technologies in real drinking water treatment plants and the criteria recommended for choosing the best available solution for As removal from drinking water. This book is addressed to different types of players: drinking water treatment plant operators, producers of water treatment technologies, public water monitoring agencies and designers of water treatment plants.
Concern about wide spread contamination of surface and ground water by various organic compounds due to the rapid development of chemical and petrochemical industries have grown over the past several decades Phenol is classified as one of the most harmful contaminants of water .Chemical and petrochemical industries effluent are the primary sources of phenol. The environmental protection agencies are getting more and more strict about these effluent treatment so that water doesent get contaminated. The industries are bound to remove the contaminants from water. This book,therefore,provides a very cost effective process by which phenol can be removed from water. The analysis should help shed some light on this new economical and effective way for the effluent treatment plant of industries for removing phenol.This will also help our society to get safer environment.
Soil, water, and air contain all of the essential elements in varying proportions, some in vast amounts. The elements essential for plants can be divided into those required in relatively large amount (the macronutrients) and those required in small amounts (the micronutrients). Soils properties vary from spot to spot and differ in their suitability for plant growth. Suitability of soil properties and the capacity of the soil to provide the required elements in adequate and balanced manner for plant growth are investigated by soil tests.
Beneath air, water is the most important substance for the life of all organisms including human beings. Water has unique chemical properties due to its polarity and hydrogen bonds which means it is able to dissolve, absorb, adsorb or suspend many different compounds. Thus in nature water is not pure as it acquires contaminants from its surrounding and those arising from humans and animals as well as other biological activities. Groundwater is a significant water resource in India for domestic, irrigation and industrial needs. More than 85 % of rural and 50 % of urban domestic water requirements is being met from groundwater resources, while irrigation accounts for around 92% of groundwater extraction. Hasty, unscientific and unsustainable groundwater development and management in the country due to ever increasing population, urbanization and industrialization is altering the hydrological and geochemical environments of the aquifers leading to deterioration of groundwater quality. The quality of the groundwater sources are affected by the characteristics of the media through which the water passes on its way to the groundwater zone of saturation.
Arsenic is one of the naturally occurring elements that are carcinogenic and contributes alot in contaminating our drinking water especially that the state (Kaduna) was blessed with rocks which contain arsenic, agricultural and industrial activities also contribute in bringing arsenic into the environment. Apart from cancer, there are other diseases associated with high concentration of arsenic in the body and still not much work has been done on this element, arsenic in Nigeria. So many researches on arsenic have been conducted in some developing countries like Bangladesh and India with the support of World Health Organisation (WHO). These countries have gone far and even developed an inexpensive way of treating water containing high concentration of arsenic for instance Bangladesh, that was certified by WHO but no similar research is taking place in Nigeria. The authors therefore thought of the need for the level of this contaminant to be known.
Water is a liquid of life, as there can be no life without water. Pure water is an animating fluid while polluted water is real curse for living being. According to a 2007 World Health Organization report,1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88% of the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, and 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year.
Total Dissolved Solids and electrical conductivity was checked through Tintometer Multi-direct Machine. Air and water temperature was determined by common mercury thermometer ranged from 0 to 110 °C and dissolved oxygen was measured through dissolved oxygen meter. During the study months the mean values recorded for the water quality parameters were, pH of water was 6.95, Total Alkalinity 135ppm, Total Hardness 95ppm, Total Chlorine 0, Air temperature 26.5 ?C, Water temperature 17 ?C, Total dissolved solids 0.49ppm, Electrical conductivity 104?S/cm, and Dissolved Oxygen 5.91ppm. From this study we get the results that River Swat water at Batkhela, District Malakand have good water quality and the aquatic parameters are in normal ranges and show that the water has no adverse effect on growth, survival and reproduction of both aquatic flora and fauna of River Swat.